Statistical Properties of Classical and Pseudo Bulges in the Local Universe

We study the statistical properties of 320 bulges of disk galaxies in the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey, using robust structural parameters of galaxies derived from image fitting. We apply the Kormendy relation to classify classical and pseudo bulges and characterize bulge dichotomy with respect to bulge structural properties and physical properties of host galaxies. We confirm previous findings that pseudo bulges on average have smaller Sérsic indices, smaller bulge-to-total ratios, and fainter surface brightnesses when compared with classical bulges. Our sizable sample statistically shows that pseudo bulges are more intrinsically flattened than classical bulges. Pseudo bulges are most frequent (incidence >~80\%) in late-type spirals (later   
than Sc). Our measurements support the picture in which pseudo bulges arose from star formation induced by inflowing gas, while classical bulges were born out of violent processes such as mergers and coalescence of clumps. We reveal differences with the literature that warrant attention: (1) the bimodal distribution of Sérsic indices presented by previous studies is not reproduced in our study; (2) classical and pseudo bulges have similar relative bulge sizes; and (3) the pseudo bulge fraction is considerably smaller in early-type disks compared with previous studies based on one-dimensional surface brightness profile fitting. We attribute the above differences to our improved image quality, more robust bulge-to-disk decomposition technique, and
different classification criteria applied.  Moreover, we find that barred galaxies do not host more pseudo bulges or more prominent pseudo bulges than unbarred galaxies. Various implications of these findings are discussed.      


Hua Gao
1st Seminar Room, KIAA-PKU
Friday, November 22, 2019 - 5:15PM to Friday, November 22, 2019 - 6:15PM