Planetary nebulae (PNe) are descendants of the low- and intermediate-mass stars (about 1–8 solar masses), which account for the absolute majority (>90%) of stellar populations in the universe. As an major category of the interstellar media, PNe are one of the few classes of celestial objects that are active in almost every part of the electromagnetic spectrum; they have proven to be ideal laboratories to study various astrophysical processes and excellent tracers of the chemistry, dynamics, and stellar populations of host galaxies. PNe thus play a very important role in galactic evolution. Today the more in-depth investigation of PNe requires cutting-edge instrumentation (e.g., IFU, AO). I will give a talk based on our recent work on PNe using the world-class telescopes, including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), and the 3.6m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT).